SWAT Literature Database for Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Title:Payment criteria and mode for watershed ecosystem services: A case study of the Heihe River Basin, northwest China 
Authors:Song, X., Y. Liu, F. Zhong, X. Deng, Y. Qi, J. Zhang, R. Zhang and Y. Zhang 
Year:2020 
Journal:Sustainability 
Volume (Issue):12(15) 
Pages: 
Article ID:6177 
DOI:10.3390/su12156177 
URL (non-DOI journals): 
Model:SWAT 
Broad Application Category:hydrologic only 
Primary Application Category:ecosystem and/or biodiversity services 
Secondary Application Category:land use change 
Watershed Description:Upper reaches of the 142,900 km^2 Heihe River, which is located in Sunan County in northwest China. 
Calibration Summary: 
Validation Summary: 
General Comments: 
Abstract:Quantitative evaluation of the relationship between payment criteria and the amount of additional ecosystem services can improve the cost-effectiveness of payment for ecosystem services (PES) projects. This paper simulated additional water conservation (AWC) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, examined appropriate payment criteria, and matched different payment modes with local herders’ preferences in Northwest China. The results showed that if all the low-coverage grass areas were to be closed through PES projects, the actual payment criteria, 37 yuan/ha, would need to be increased eight times, which would be 302 yuan/ha. Along with that, annual AWC could reach 1.69 × 106 m3. If PES projects were implemented in all the low- and medium-coverage grass areas, payment criteria would need to be increased to 365 yuan/ha, and the annual AWC would reach 2.59 × 106 m3. There were scale economy effects in this range, because a 21% increase in the payment criteria would result in a 66% increase in the total AWC. The appropriate mode for herders above 40 years old is “cash + in-kind compensation” and “cash + capacity” for those below 40, due to the preferences varying in age. 
Language:English 
Keywords:payment for ecosystem services, payment criteria, payment mode, Sunan County, Heihe River Basin