SWAT Literature Database for Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Title:Assessment of ecological function indicators related to nitrate under multiple human stressors in a large watershed 
Authors:Cakir, R., S. Sauvage, M. Gerino, M. Volk and J.M. Sánchez-Pérez 
Journal:Ecological Indicators 
Volume (Issue):111 
Article ID:106016 
URL (non-DOI journals): 
Broad Application Category:BMP review or conceptual approach 
Primary Application Category:nitrogen cycling/loss and transport 
Secondary Application Category:in-stream processes 
Watershed Description:The Garonne watershed, located in Southwestern Europe, is a well investigated area with available information on climate, geomorphology, soils, slope gradients, land uses, and multiple human-driven stressors (Espitalier-Noël et al., 2016; Grusson et al., 2018). The Garonne River is France’s third longest river and has its source in the Spanish Pyrenean massif and discharges into the Atlantic Ocean (near Bordeaux in France). The Garonne is eutrophic in the middle and lower watershed where the most active biological activities occur on the natural river bed as epilithic biofilm (Ameziane et al., 1999). It is divided into three geographic entities: the plain surrounded by the Pyrenees in the South and the Massif Central in the North-East (Tockner et al., 2009). The watershed is located between different climatic zones, with Mediterranean climate conditions in the East of the watershed, a continental type in the South, and with an oceanic climate in the North and West. In the decade between 2000 and 2010, mean river discharges of 600 m3.s−1 were recorded at the outlet at Tonneins (the last gauging station not influenced by the tide, corresponding to a drainage area of 50,000 km2). The daily flow variations are strongly influenced by 210 dams that have a capacity of 3.2 billion cubic meters of water (Sauvage et al., 2003). Agriculture (60%) dominates the lowland plain whereas the upland is mainly covered by forest (32%) and pasture. Settlement and infrastructure areas represent 2.5% of the total surface. The watershed’s population is about five million causing 3639 tons per of nitrogen municipalities effluents per year. 
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Keywords:Water quality; Ecological function; Nitrate removal; Nitrate production; Modeling