SWAT Literature Database for Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Title:Diagnosis and Treatment of the SWAT Hydrological Response Using the Budyko Framework 
Authors:Malagò, A., F. Bouraoui and A. De Roo 
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Broad Application Category:hydrologic only 
Primary Application Category:baseflow and other hydrologic component analysis 
Secondary Application Category:hydrologic assessment 
Watershed Description:The Danube River Basin is the second largest river basin in Europe, covering approximately 803,000 km^2 of Central and South-Eastern Europe. In year 2015, 19 countries were sharing the catchment, 14 of which are called “Danube countries” (with catchment areas >2000 km2). The biggest shares of the catchment belong to Romania (30%), followed by Hungary, Serbia, and Austria (around 10%). 
Calibration Summary:The simulation period was 1990–2009 including five years used as warm-up to mitigate the unknown initial conditions. In short, a regionalized calibration and validation procedure was developed and applied to ensure that monthly streamflow and its components were correctly simulated. The hydrologic parameters were calibrated in 264 headwaters for the period 1995–2006, followed by a regionalization of the calibrated parameters. The model was then validated in 708 stations for the period 1995–2009. After calibration and regionalization, about 70% of the gauging stations of the calibration dataset reached satisfactory percent bias comparing the observed and simulated monthly streamflow. From the validated dataset, 60% of the gauging stations reached satisfactory performance. Additional details about the SWAT and calibration can be found in Malago’ et al. 2017 
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Abstract:The hydrologic response of a river basin pertains to how precipitation is partitioned into streamflow, evapotranspiration, and infiltration. The reliability of all these components is essential for the sustainable use of water resources. This paper seeks to understand if the prediction of the main components of the water balance from the SWAT model can be controlled and interpreted by a simple Darwinian approach: the Budyko framework. The Danube Basin was selected to assess the SWAT model green (evapotranspiration) and blue water fluxes (water yield or water that runs off the landscape into rivers) in a diagnostic approach based on two mono-parametric Budyko curve-type equations. This analysis was conducted comparing the evaporative index (EI) and the base flow index (BFI) predicted by Budyko’s equations based on observed data from 418 gauging stations with those simulated by SWAT. The study demonstrated that SWAT evapotranspiration estimations were in good agreement with those of the Budyko curves, whereas SWAT baseflow underestimated the Inn and Austrian Danube regions. The analysis of the Budyko equations in each water management region of the Danube provided a pioneering understanding of the relationship between EI and BFI in the study area, leading to an improvement of the hydrological simulations and providing a more reliable water balance in each water management region. 
Keywords:SWAT; Budyko; Darwinian; Newtonian; calibration