Xi He, Edward J. Balistreri, Gyu Hyun Kim, Tao Xiong, Wendong Zhang. 2021. "A General Equilibrium Assessment of COVID-19’s Labor Productivity Impacts on China’s Regional Economies。" CARD Series Working Paper. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
This study introduces a database that can be used to analyze COVID-19’s impacts on China’s regional economies. This database contains various sectoral and regional economic outcomes. In the context of a general equilibrium trade model, we utilize the provincial and sectoral value-added and national trade series to estimate COVID-19’s province-by-month labor-productivity impacts. Compared to February 2019 levels, we find an average 37.9% decrease in labor productivity (equivalent to around 293 million jobs) and an average 20.8% decrease in welfare across provinces in February 2020. Both labor productivity and welfare have recovered quickly since April 2020. As of September 2020, average provincial labor productivity increased by 29.8% (equivalent to around 230 million jobs) and average welfare increased by 14.7% relative to their September 2019 levels.
Dermot Hayes, Xi He, and Wendong Zhang. 2021. "Is China’s Hog Rebuilding Complete? Reconciling Inventory and Price Data。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
The African swine fever outbreak that started in August 2018 wiped out 40% of China’s sow inventory. China has been making substantial efforts, including subsidizing large hog producers and encouraging industrialization and modernization of hog production, to rebuild and expand its pork production. While China’s governmental inventory data as of December 2020 show sow and hog inventory were 92.1% and 93.1% of their respective 2017 levels, recent record-high piglet, sow, hog, and pork prices suggest a large persistent supply shortage. China’s record pork and live swine imports in 2020 suggest that China’s hog rebuilding might be fast but of low genetic quality. Specifically, it seems likely that the retention of low-quality commercial generation gilts helped rebuild the herd but set back the national breeding system by abandoning purebred grandparents and parent generation propagation.
Dermot Hayes, Xi He, and Wendong Zhang. 2020. "The Impact of Flooding on China’s Agricultural Production and Food Security in 2020。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
In June and July of 2020, severe flooding decimated crops in several of China’s southern provinces. By August, China’s State Council Information Office estimated that heavy rainfalls had affected 27 provinces, 63,000,000 people, and led to a direct loss of $26 billion. He, Hayes, and Zhang examine the impact of the flooding and find that it affected 23% of the planted area of summer crops, caused 4.3% crop failure, and increased meat and vegetable prices, but not grain prices. They also find that China increased its grain imports this year, which could partially counteract its grain production loss from the flooding and help dampen the impact on national food security.
Dermot Hayes, Xi He, and Wendong Zhang. 2020. "Upheaval in China’s Corn Market: Will China expand its Tariff Rate Quota for Corn?。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
China’s has recently expanded its US agricultural product imports, partially due to the terms of the phase one trade deal and partially due to recent flooding in some of its largest agricultural-producing provinces (also examined in this issue of APR). He, Hayes, and Zhang examine recent price changes and changes in demand for corn in China and find that China will easily exceed its corn TRQ of 7.2 million metric tons in 2020.
Yongtong Shao, Minghao Li, Dermot J. Hayes, Wendong Zhang, Tao Xiong, Wei Xie. 2020. "China’s Missing Pigs: Correcting China’s Hog Inventory Data Using a Machine Learning Approach。" CARD Series Working Paper. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Small sample size often limits forecasting tasks such as the prediction of production, yield, and consumption of agricultural products. Machine learning offers an appealing alternative to traditional forecasting methods. In particular, Support Vector Regression has superior forecasting performance in small sample applications. In this article, we introduce Support Vector Regression via an application to China’s hog market. Since 2014, China’s hog inventory data has experienced an abnormal decline that contradicts price and consumption trends. We use Support Vector Regression to predict the true inventory based on the price-inventory relationship before 2014. We show that, in this application with a small sample size, Support Vector Regression out-performs neural networks, random forest, and linear regression. Predicted hog inventory decreased by 3.9% from November 2013 to September 2017, instead of the 25.4% decrease in the reported data.
Xi He and Wendong Zhang. 2020. "Implications of Hong Kong’s Special Status Revocation for Agricultural Trade between the United States, Hong Kong, and Mainland China。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
In 1992, the United States granted Hong Kong status as a customs territory separate from mainland China. On June 29, 2020, however, the US Department of Commerce withdrew that status due to recent tensions between China and the United States. Hong Kong, as the world’s largest re-exporting port, plays a large intermediary role in US-China trade, and the revocation of its special status may provoke China into taking retaliatory economic and/or political actions. He and Zhang examine trends in Hong Kong’s import/export of US agricultural products and how that trade may be affected. They find that the revocation itself is not likely to directly affect US-China agricultural trade prospects much if neither China nor the United States responds with further actions.
Chen-Ti Chen, Tao Xiong, and Wendong Zhang. 2020. "Large Hog Companies Gain from China’s Ongoing African Swine Fever。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Since November 2018, China has reduced its hog and sow inventory by almost 32% due to ongoing outbreaks of African swine fever. These reductions—103 million pigs and 8.7 million sows—account for more than one-fifth of the world’s hog inventory, but they may come as a blessing in disguise for large hog companies. Chen, Xiong, and Zhang examine stock returns for China’s 10 largest hog firms and 15 global hog firms and find that China’s hog companies saw positive abnormal stock returns following ASF outbreaks.
Xi He, Dermot J. Hayes, Wendong Zhang. 2020. "China’s Agricultural Imports under the Phase One Deal: Is Success Possible?。" CARD Policy Brief. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
We examine China’s committed agricultural purchases under the phase one trade deal and whether it can fulfill those commitments due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We review China’s actual agricultural imports from the United States and other countries up to the first quarter of 2020 and analyze trade deal obligations China must still meet by the end of 2020. We use prior seasonal patterns and US-China price differentials to predict China’s agricultural imports from the United States in 2020. We examine total agricultural and related products with special focus on corn, soybeans, cotton, sorghum, pork, and beef.
The data show China currently has an enormous market demand for agricultural imports, and, to date, has imported large quantities of pork, cotton, sorghum, and soybeans from the United States. However, China imports an even greater amount of agricultural products from other countries, which, in part, reflects a continued diversification away from US agricultural imports before and during the trade war. We predict China will import $18.60 billion in agricultural products from the United States in 2020, far behind the phase one target of $36.5 billion.
Wendong Zhang and Tao Xiong. 2020. "The coronavirus will delay agricultural export surges promised in trade deal with China。" . The Conversation.
The novel coronavirus has shocked the world’s economies.
The virus has spread to more than 100 countries and many U.S. states. This has rattled global stock markets, plunging the Dow more than 2,000 points on March 9 – the biggest one-day drop since the 2008 Great Recession.
Concerns about potential global economic decline has made implementation of the U.S.-China phase one trade deal uncertain. This deal requires China to purchase an additional US$12.5 billion worth of U.S. agricultural products in 2020, and $19.5 billion more in 2021.
In our recent research on the impacts of the U.S.-China trade war on U.S. agriculture, we argue that China has the capability to make these purchases, despite delays and disruptions to supply chains and trade flows caused by the coronavirus. A resilient and recovering Chinese economy means the country can comply with the trade deal and potentially minimize damage to the U.S. economy from an ongoing trade war.
Wendong Zhang. 2020. "US-China Phase 1 Trade Deal and US agriculture: A big win for farmers or too good to be true?。" Ag Decision Maker. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach.
Almost two years after the start of the US-China trade war, leaders of both countries signed the highly anticipated Phase 1 trade deal on January 15, 2020. This is especially significant politically and symbolically because this deal represents the first time both countries made moves to actually reduce the tariff rate rather than escalate the situation. In the 88-page deal, China makes historic and bold promises regarding buying US goods and services, pledging to buy an additional $200 billion worth of US products in 2020 and 2021. In particular, China promises to purchase an additional $12.5 and $19.5 billion of US agricultural products in 2020 and 2021, respectively. If realized, these will be the two highest agricultural export watermarks for US-China agricultural trade ever. However, the commodity markets did not show a significant rally as hoped, but instead exhibited noticeable drops. In this article, I will share key details of the Phase 1 deal, focusing on its agricultural provisions, and share my personal opinions and thoughts about the deal and its implications for US and global commodity markets and agricultural exports.
Chad Hart and Lee Schulz. 2020. "The Phase One Trade Deal: Projections and Implications。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Chad Hart and Lee Schulz examine the “Phase One” trade deal and determine how it will affect US imports and exports and trade relations with major trading partners. Hart and Schulz find that the USMCA and Japan agreements concentrate on solidifying existing trade flows, rather than significantly expanding trade opportunities. The new trade deals maintain and protect US trading relationships with Canada, Mexico, and Japan, with the prospect for continued, but limited, growth. The China deal, on the other hand, has the potential to radically change global trade flows.
Hart and Schulz are both CARD and Extension economists. Hart is a crop market specialist and Schulz is a livestock industry specialist. Schulz and Hart’s APR articles examine the largest factors currently influencing some of the United States’ largest agricultural industries (Production Projections and Trade Adjustments and Volatile Prices and Profit Margins).
Edward J. Balistreri, Wendong Zhang, and John Beghin. 2020. "The State-level Burden of the Trade War: Interactions between the Market Facilitation Program and Tariffs。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
As the Trump Administration works with China’s President Xi to pen a new US-China trade deal, Ed Balistreri, Wendong Zhang, and John Beghin examine the current US-China trade war and its uneven distribution of impacts on US states. The authors find that the distribution of Market Facilitation Payments created “winner” and “loser” states; that is, for some states, the MFP payments totally offset the incidence of tariff retaliation, and for others they don’t. Interestingly, they note that while most of the winner states are “red” states that voted for President Trump in 2016, key “purple” battleground states, such as Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania, didn’t receive large enough MFP payments to offset tariff retaliations.
Balistreri and Zhang are both CARD economists that have examined the US-China trade war in depth. They both helped author “The Impact of the 2018 Trade Disruptions on the Iowa Economy,” a CARD series paper that was the first to determine the fiscal impacts the US-China trade war would have on Iowa’s economy.
Miguel Carriquiry, Amani Elobeid, Dermot Hayes, and Wendong Zhang. 2019. "Impact of African Swine Fever on US and World Commodity Markets。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Recent outbreaks of African Swine Fever in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, South Korea, and especially China, have generated interest in how world commodity markets will adjust in response to pig herd losses due to the disease and to panic culling to avoid the negative impacts of the disease. This adjustment is complicated by the retaliatory duties that China has placed on US soybean and pork exports and the duration of temporary exemptions on these tariffs. It is clear that a scarcity of pork will cause a reduction in pork consumption in impacted countries and a switch to alternative proteins. It is also clear that countries (such as the European Union and Brazil) who have direct access to China’s pork and chicken markets will see an increase in exports. What is less clear is the second-round impact of these adjustments. Will the United States ship more pork to markets vacated by the European Union and Brazil as these countries pursue lucrative markets in China? What is the net impact on US and world soybean and corn exports and prices? What would be the implications for the United States if China removes retaliatory duties?
John M. Crespi and Chen-Ti Chen. 2019. "Global Competition Made 2018 a Bad Time to Start a Trade War。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
The United States is one of the largest players in the international agricultural market. With the continued growth of its agricultural output, the US agricultural sector has relied heavily on export markets to maintain its competitiveness and profitability. In fact, projections show the United States will export $137 billion in agricultural commodities in 2020. However, the 2018 trade disruptions with Canada and Mexico that led to a renegotiated, but still unratified NAFTA-like treaty (the USMCA) and the presently unresolved trade dispute between the United States and China have adversely impacted US agricultural exports. Of concern is how such disruptions might affect the competitive structure of markets. Today, Iowa farmers are concerned about the long-run implications of the trade disruptions to exports of major importance, especially beef, corn, pork, and soybeans. In this article, we discuss a metric of the historical export performance of these commodities from 1980 to 2018 and show that the trade disruptions occur at a time when the United States is in a particularly precarious position. At the outset of the trade disruptions in 2018, Iowa farmers faced the most competitive markets they had ever faced for these commodities. The longer the disruptions continue, the harder it will be to regain market share in the future.
Shuyang Qu, Wendong Zhang, Minghao Li, Lulu Rodriguez, Guang Han, Erin Cork, James M Gbeda. 2019. "Midwest Crop Farmers’ Perceptions of the U.S.-China Trade War。" CARD Policy Brief. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Minghao Li, Edward J. Balistreri, Wendong Zhang. 2019. "The U.S.-China trade war: Tariff data and general equilibrium analysis。" CARD Series Working Paper. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Tao Xiong and Wendong Zhang. 2019. "Who benefits most from China’s growing import demand due to African Swine Fever?。" Ag Decision Maker. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach.
Wenting Wang & Longbao Wei. 2019. "Impacts of Agricultural Price Support Policies on Price Variability and Welfare: Evidence from China’s Soybean Market。" CARD Series Working Paper. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Pingping Wang, Wendong Zhang, Minghao Li and Yijun Han. 2019. "化肥教育可以提高化肥使用效率吗？来自中国小麦生产的例子。" Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 543; doi:10.3390/su11020543. MDPI.
Minghao Li, Tao Xiong, Yongjie Ji, Dermot Hayes, and Wendong Zhang. 2019. "非洲猪瘟近况更新。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Wendong Zhang. 2019. "关于中国你需要知道的七件事。" Ag Decision Maker. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach.
Minghao Li, Edward J. Balistreri, Wendong Zhang. 2018. "对2018年贸易战的一般均衡分析。" CARD Series Working Paper. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
这篇论文介绍一个2018年贸易战引起的关税增长的数据库，并用经典的GTAPinGAMS 模型和GTAP version 9 数据来量化贸易战的影响。我们发现在完全竞争的Armington模型中贸易战对总体的福利作用较小，对贸易流向和行业产出的影响比较大。
Yongtong Shao, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Yongjie Ji, and Dermot Hayes. 2018. "世界养猪第一大国陷入非洲猪瘟危机。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Edward J. Balistreri, Chad E. Hart, Dermot J. Hayes, Minghao Li, Lee Schulz, David A. Swenson, Wendong Zhang, John M. Crespi. 2018. "2018贸易战对爱荷华经济的影响。" CARD Policy Brief. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes. 2018. "中国农业进口的潜力。" CARD Policy Brief. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, and Chad E. Hart. 2018. "从中国过去贸易报复中可以学到什么？" CARD Policy Brief. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, and Dermot Hayes. 2018. "中国近期农村的农村土地改革可以解决农地困局吗？" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
中国面临关于土地问题的双重挑战：1. 如何保护稀缺土地资源的数量和质量？2. 如何解决土地细碎化，增加农业生产力？中国近期进行的土地改革旨在解决这两方面的问题。这些改革对中国甚至世界将有深远意义。
Wendong Zhang and Minghao Li. 2018. "透过爱荷华州看中国农业经济。" Ag Decision Maker. Extension and Outreach, Iowa State University.
美国有四分之一的大豆出口中国，所以中国在美国农业贸易中的地位不容小视。因为爱荷华州的前州长 Terry Branstad 现任美国驻华大使，中美农业贸易对爱荷华州更是尤其重要。本文以爱荷华州为量尺介绍中国农业经济的情况。
Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot Hayes, Riley Arthur, Yantao Yang, and Xiudong Wang. 2017. "中国推广使用燃料乙醇的计划及其对国际市场的潜在影响。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
中国最近公布了于2020年以前在全国范围内推广E10燃料乙醇 (汽油混合10%乙醇) 的计划。 在此计划在实行以后全国燃料乙醇使用量将提高4倍。即使中国可以在短时间内建成足够的冶炼厂，长期看来原材料（主要以玉米为主）的供给可能会出现短缺，为乙醇和玉米出口国提供机会。
Qianrong Wu and Wendong Zhang. 2016. "中国玉米新政策。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Chad Hart and Lee Shulz. 2015. "中国对美国农业市场的重要性。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Wendong Zhang. 2015. "中美农业之同异。" Agricultural Policy Review. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.