Watersheds: Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB)

The UMRB flows roughly 1,300 miles, from Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota to the confluence with the Ohio River at the southern Illinois, and drains approximately 490,000 km2 of prime agricultural lands covering portions of seven Midwestern states. Despite representing only about 15% of the Mississippi River drainage area, it is identified as a major contributor of nutrients (about 43% of the nitrogen and 26% of the phosphorous loads) to the Gulf of Mexico causing seasonal oxygen-depleted condition known as hypoxia.

Relevant Projects

  • 2008-10: NSF. National Science Foundation. Biofuels and the Hydrologic Cycle. Investigators: R. Anex, R.W. Arritt, B.K. Gelder, P.W. Gassman, M. Jha. Amount: $307,903.
  • 2007-09: DOE/USDA. Joint U.S. Department of Energy - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). Expansion of Ethanol Production: Evaluation of Costs and Benefits to Rural Communities in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Investigators: L. Kurkalova, C.L. Kling, P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, S. Secchi, D. Otto, A. Carriquiry. Amount: $676,722.
  • 2006-08: NASA/USDA. Joint National Aeronautical and Space Agency - U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). Interactive Drivers of Land-use/land-cover Change in Agricultural Areas: Climate and Land Manager Choices. Investigators: C.L. Kling, E.S. Takle, P.W. Gassman, H. Feng. Amount: $465,900.

Journal Publications

  • Kurkalova, L., S. Secchi, P.W. Gassman, S. Rabotyagov, M. Jha, and T. Campbell. Energy prices and water quality in the Midwest. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics (under review, October 2009).
  • Takle, E.S., M. Jha, E. Lu, R.W. Arritt, W.J. Gutowski, Jr., and the NARCAP Team. Streamflow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin as simulated by SWAT driven by 20C results of NARCCAP regional climate models. Meteorologische Zeitschift (revised, February 2010)
  • Secchi, S., P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, L. Kurkalova, and C.L. Kling. 2010 (in press) The water quality effects of corn expansion in the Midwest. Ecological Applications.
  • Rabotyagov, S., T. Campbell, M. Jha, P.W. Gassman, J.G. Arnold, L. Kurkalova, S. Secchi, H. Feng, and C.L. Kling. 2010 (in press). Least cost control of agricultural nutrient contributions to the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone. Ecological Applications.
  • Lu, E., E.S. Takle, and M. Jha. 2009. The relationships between climatic and hydrological changes in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: A SWAT and multi-GCM study. Journal of Hydrometeorology (in press) doi:10.1175/2009JHM1150.1.
  • Jha, M., J.G. Arnold, P.W. Gassman, F. Giorgi, and R. Gu. 2006. Climate change sensitivity assessment on Upper Mississippi River Basin streamflows using SWAT. Journal of American Water Resources Association 42(4):997-1016.
  • Takle, E.S., M. Jha, and C.J. Anderson. 2005. Hydrological cycle in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: 20th century simulations by multiple GCMs. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L18407, doi:10.1029/2005GL023630.
  • Jha, M., Z. Pan, E.S. Takle, and R. Gu. 2004. Impact of climate change on stream flow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: A regional climate model perspective. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D09102, doi:10.1029/2003JD003686.

Book Chapters

  • Takle, E.S., M. Jha, and E. Lu. 2009. Climate Change and Streamflow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. In: Understanding Climate Change: Climate Variability, Predictability & Change in the Midwestern United States (Eds. S.C. Pryor). Indiana University Press. Bloomington, IN, ISBN: 978-0-253-35344-3.
  • Gassman, P.W., S. Secchi, M. Jha, and L. Kurkalova. 2006. Upper Mississippi River Basin modeling system part 1: SWAT input data requirements and issues. In: Coastal Hydrology and Processes (Eds. V.P. Singh and Y.J. Xu). Water Resources Publications, Highland Ranch, CO, ISBN: 1-887201-46-7.
  • Jha, M., P.W. Gassman, S. Secchi, and J.G. Arnold. 2006. Upper Mississippi River Basin modeling system part 2: Baseline simulation results. In: Coastal Hydrology and Processes (Eds. V.P. Singh and Y.J. Xu). Water Resources Publications, Highland Ranch, CO, ISBN: 1-887201-46-7.
  • Kling, C.L., S. Secchi, M. Jha, H. Feng, P.W. Gassman, and L.A. Kurkalova. 2006. Upper Mississippi River Basin modeling system part 3: Conservation practice scenario results. In: Coastal Hydrology and Processes (Eds. V.P. Singh and Y.J. Xu). Water Resources Publications, Highland Ranch, CO, ISBN: 1-887201-46-7.
  • Takle, E.S., C. Anderson, M. Jha, and P.W. Gassman. 2006. Upper Mississippi River Basin modeling system part 4: Climate change impacts on flow and water quality. In: Coastal Hydrology and Processes (Eds. V.P. Singh and Y.J. Xu). Water Resources Publications, Highland Ranch, CO, ISBN: 1-887201-46-7.

Conference/Workshop Proceedings/Presentations

  • Kurkalova, L., S. Secchi, P.W. Gassman, S. Rabotyagov, M. Jha, and T. Campbell. Energy prices and water quality in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. 2010 Land Grant and Sea Grant National Water Conference. February 21-25, 2010. Hilton Head Island, South Carolina.
  • Jha, M., S. Rabotyagov, C.L. Kling, P.W. Gassman, and E.S. Takle. Effect of potential future climate change on the cost-effective nonpoint source pollution reduction strategies in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. International SWAT User’s Conference. August 5-7, 2009. Boulder, Colorado.
  • Takle, E.S., M. Jha, E. Lu, R.W. Arritt, W.J. Gutowski, Jr., and the NARCCAP Team. Streamflow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin as simulated by SWAT driven by 20C results of the NARCCAP regional climate models. 21st Century Challenges in Regional-scale Climate Modeling Workshop. May 4-8, 2009. Lund, Sweden.
  • Lu, E., E.S. Takle, M. Jha, and NARCCAP Team. Changes of climate and hydrological cycle in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. American Meteorological Society 89th Annual Meeting. January 11-15, 2009, Phoenix, Arizona.
  • Jha, M., P.W. Gassman, S. Secchi, C.L. Kling. SWAT modeling approach for a large watershed in north-central USA. SWAT-SEA International Conference. Jan 5-7, 2009, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
  • Secchi, S., P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, C.L. Kling, and L. Kurkalova. Water quality effects of corn ethanol versus switchgrass-based biofuels in the Midwest. Conference on Transition to a Bioeconomy: Environmental and Rural Development Impact. October 15-16, 2008, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Kurkalova, L.A., S. Secchi, C.L. Kling, P.W. Gassman, and M. Jha. Rotation and water quality effects of harvesting corn stover. American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA) Annual Meeting. July 27-29, 2008, Orlando, Florida.
  • Secchi, S., P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, L. Kurkalova, and C.L. Kling. Biofuels and water quality in the Midwest: Corn versus Switchgrass as Feedstock. Iowa Water Conference: Linking Land Management and Water Quality. Feb. 26-27, 2008, Ames, Iowa AND Conference on the Ecological Dimensions of Biofuels, Ecological Society of America. March 10, Washington, D.C.
  • Rabotyagov, S., T. Campbell, M. Jha, P.W. Gassman, J.G. Arnold, L. Kurkalova, S. Secchi, H. Feng, and C.L. Kling. Least cost control of agricultural nutrient contributions to local water and the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. Australian Agricultural and Resources Economics Annual Meeting. Feb. 5-8, 2008, Canberra, Australia.
  • Takle, E.S., M. Jha, C.J. Anderson, and P.W. Gassman. Climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Upper Mississippi River Basin as determined by an ensemble of GCMs. American Meteorological Society 86th Annual Meeting. January 29-February 2, 2006, Atlanta, Georgia.
  • Kling, C.L., H. Feng, P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, L. Kurkalova, and S. Secchi. Modeling nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Mississippi River Basin Nutrients Science Workshop. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. October 4-6, 2005, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Takle, E.S., M. Jha, P.W. Gassman, C.J. Anderson, and S. Secchi. Climate change impacts on the hydrology and water quality of the Upper Mississippi River Basin. 3rd International SWAT User's Conference. July 11-15, 2005, Zurich, Switzerland.
  • Jha, M., P.W. Gassman, S. Secchi, J.G. Arnold, L. Kurkalova, and C.L. Kling. An assessment of alternative conservation practice and land use strategies on the hydrology and water quality of the Upper Mississippi River Basin. 3rd International SWAT User's Conference. July 11-15, 2005, Zurich, Switzerland.
  • Kling, C.L., H. Feng, P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, L. Kurkalova, and S. Secchi. Natural Resources at Risk: Water Quality and the Dead Zone in the Gulf of Mexico. Association of Environmental and Resource Economist (AERE) Workshop. June 12-14, 2005, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming.
  • Takle, E.S., M. Jha, Z. Pan, and R. Gu. Climate change and uncertainty of stream flow scenarios of the Upper Mississippi River Basin by use of a regional climate model. American Meteorological Society 85th Annual Meeting. January 9-13, 2005, San Diego, California.
  • Gassman, P.W., E.S. Takle, C. Anderson, M. Jha, and R.M. Cruse. Climate Change Projection Impact on Soil Carbon and other Environmental Indicators for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. 3rd USDA Symposium on Greenhouse Gases & Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry. March 21-24, 2005, Baltimore, Maryland.
  • Takle, E.S., M. Jha, Z. Pan, and R. Gu. Impacts of climate change on flow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Regional-scale Climate Modeling Workshop, World Climate Research Program (WCRP), World Meteorological Organization (WMO). March 29-April 2, 2004, Lund, Sweden.
  • Takle, E.S., M. Jha, and C.J. Anderson. Changes in stream flow due to increase in greenhouse gas forcing. International Workshop on IPCC Model Analysis. March 1-4, 2005, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  • Jha, M., P.W. Gassman, S. Secchi, and J.G. Arnold. Simulation framework for water quality modeling in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. In Proceedings of American Society of Agricultural Engineers 2nd Conference on Watershed Management to Meet Emerging TMDL Environmental Regulations. November 8-12, 2003, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
  • Jha, M., P.W. Gassman, and R. Gu. Modeling diffuse pollution at a watershed scale using SWAT. In proceedings of 2nd International SWAT User's Conference. July 1-4, 2003, Bari, Italy.
  • Gassman, P.W., M. Jha, S. Secchi, and J.G. Arnold. Initial calibration and validation of the SWAT model for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. In proceedings of International Water Association 7th International Conference on Diffuse Pollution and Basin Management. August 17-22, 2003, University College, Dublin.
  • Secchi, S., P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, and J.G. Arnold. Application of SWAT for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. In proceedings of American Water Resources Association Spring Specialty Conference: Agricultural Hydrology and Water Quality. May 12-14, 2003, Kansas City, Missouri.

Posters

  • C.L. Kling, S. Rabotyagov, M. Jha, and P.W. Gassman. Optimal targeting of conservation practices for nonpoint source pollution control in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. SWCS Science to Solutions Conference. December 9-11, 2009, Des Moines, Iowa.
  • M. Jha, E.S. Takle, P.W. Gassman, and C.L. Kling. Effect of potential future climate change on the hydrology and water quality in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. SWCS Science to Solutions Conference. December 9-11, 2009, Des Moines, Iowa.
  • C.L. Kling, S. Secchi, P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, and L. Kurkalova. Water quality effects of corn expansion in the Midwest. SWCS Science to Solutions Conference. December 9-11, 2009, Des Moines, Iowa.
  • Jha, M., S. Rabotyagov, E.S. Takle, E. Lu, P.W. Gassman, and C.L. Kling. Interactive Drivers and Impacts of Land Use Changes: Climate and Conservation Policy. NASA Land Use Land Cover Science Team Meeting. March 31-April 2, 2009, Bethesda, Maryland.
  • Jha, M., S. Rabotyagov, C.L. Kling, P.W. Gassman, and E.S. Takle. Effect of potential future climate change on the cost-effective nonpoint source pollution reduction strategies in the UMRB. International Scientific Congress on Climate Change. March 10-12, 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Jha, M., E.S. Takle, E. Lu, P.W. Gassman, and C.L. Kling. Interactive Drivers of Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (Part III). NASA Carbon Cycle & Ecosystems Joint Science Workshop. May 1-2, 2008, Adelphi, Maryland.
  • Kling, C.L., E.S. Takle, H. Feng, M. Jha, S. Rabotyagov, E. Lu, P.W. Gassman, J. Parcel, and T. Campbell. Interactive Drivers of Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (Part II). NASA Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Science Team Meeting. April 4-6, 2007, Adelphi, Maryland.
  • Feng, H., P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, C.L. Kling, S. Secchi, E.S. Takle, and L. Kurkalova. Interactive Drivers of Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (Part I). NASA Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Science Team Meeting. October 10-12, 2006, Adelphi, Maryland.
  • Jha, M., P.W. Gassman, S. Secchi, L. Kurkalova, and H. Feng. SWAT Baseline data inputs and simulation results for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Nutrients Science Workshop. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. October 4-6, 2005, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Takle, E.S., M. Jha, and C.J. Anderson. Changes in Stream Flow due to Increase in Greenhouse Gas Forcing. International Workshop on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Model Analysis. International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii, March 1-4, 2005, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  • Takle, E.S., C.L. Kling, H. Asbjornsen, P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, R.W. Arritt, W.J. Gutowski, Jr., S. Secchi, H. Feng, and L. Kurkalova. Forecasting environmental change: policy guidance from fully coupled and interactive human behavior and physically based models. National Council for Science and Environment (NCSE) Conference. Washington, D.C., February 3-4, 2005.
  • Kling, C.L., L. Kurkalova, S. Secchi, P.W. Gassman, and M. Jha. Spatial water quality trade-offs: Upper Mississippi River Basin. American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA) Annual Meeting. Montreal, Quebec, July 27-30, 2003. (1st place winner))
  • Secchi, S., P.W. Gassman, M. Jha, and J.G. Arnold. Application of SWAT for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. AWRA Spring Specialty Conference: Agricultural Hydrology and Water Quality. Kansas City, Missouri, May 12-14, 2003.
  • Jha, M., Z. Pan, E.S. Takle, and R. Gu. Climate Change Induced Streamflow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. 14th Symposium of American Meteorological Society on Global Change and Climate Variations. Long Beach, California, February 9-13, 2003.
  • Pan, Z., M. Jha, E.S. Takle, and R. Gu. Regional Climate Model Based Water Quality Assessment for Climate Change in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. 2nd ICTP Conference on Detection and Modeling of Regional Climate Change. Trieste, Italy, September 30-October 4, 2002.
  • Gassman, P.W., S. Secchi, M. Jha, J.G. Arnold, R. Srinivasan and S. Chinnasamy. Application of SWAT for Alternative Management Scenarios for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. 6th International Conference of International Water Association on Diffuse Pollution. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 30-October 4, 2002.